Saturday, February 27, 2010

Abraham Maslow’s Biography (Hierarchy of Needs)

Abraham Harold Maslow (April 1, 1908 – June 8, 1970) was an American psychologist. He is noted for his conceptualization of a "hierarchy of human needs", and is considered the founder of humanistic psychology.[1]Contents [hide]

BiographyBorn and raised in Brooklyn, New York, Maslow was the oldest of seven children. His parents were uneducated Jewish immigrants from Russia. He was slow and tidy, and remembered his childhood as lonely and rather unhappy, because, as he said, "I was the little Jewish boy in the non-Jewish neighborhood. It was a little like being the first Negro enrolled in the all-white school. I was isolated and unhappy. I grew up in libraries and among books, without friends."[2] he would pursue law, but he went to graduate school at the University of Wisconsin to study psychology. While there, he married his first cousin Bertha in December 1928, and found as his chief mentor, professor Harry Harlow. At Wisconsin he pursued an original line of research, investigating primate dominance behaviour and sexuality. He went on to further research at Columbia University, continuing similar studies; there he found another mentor in Alfred Adler, one of Sigmund Freud's early colleagues.

From 1937 to 1951, Maslow was on the faculty of Brooklyn College. In New York he found two more mentors, anthropologist Ruth Benedict and Gestalt psychologist Max Wertheimer, whom he admired both professionally and personally. These two were so accomplished in both realms, and such "wonderful human beings" as well, that Maslow began taking notes about them and their behaviour. This would be the basis of his lifelong research and thinking about mental health and human potential. He wrote extensively on the subject, borrowing ideas from other psychologists but adding significantly to them, especially the concepts of a hierarchy of needs, metaneeds, self-actualizing persons, and peak experiences. Maslow became the leader of the humanistic school of psychology that emerged in the 1950s and 1960s, which he referred to as the "third force" -- beyond Freudian theory and behaviourism.

Maslow was a professor at Brandeis University from 1951 to 1969, and then became a resident fellow of the Laughlin Institute in California. He died of a heart attack on June 8, 1970.

In 1967, the American Humanist Association named him Humanist of the Year.

Humanistic theories of self actualization
Many psychologists have made significant impacts on society's understanding of the world. Abraham Maslow was one of these; he brought a new face to the study of human behavior. He was inspired by great minds, and his own gift of thought created a unique concept of Humanistic Psychology.

His family loved and his experiences influenced the ideas that created a whole new form of psychology.After World War II, Maslow began to question the way psychologists had come to their conclusions, and though he didn’t completely disagree, he had his own ideas on how to understand the Human mind.(The Developing Person through the Life Span, (1983) pg. 42)

Humanistic Psychologists believe that every person has a strong desire to realize his or her full potential,to reach a level of Self-actualization. To prove that humans are not simply blindly reacting to situations, but trying to accomplish something greater, Maslow studied mentally healthy individuals instead of people with serious psychological issues. This enabled him to discover that people experience “peak experiences,”high points in life, when the individual is harmony with himself and his surroundings. Self-actualized people can have many peak experiences throughout a day while others have those experiences less frequently. (The Developing Person through the Life Span, (1983) pg. 43)

A visual aid Maslow created to explain his theory, which he called the Hierarchy of Needs, is a pyramid depicting the levels of human needs, psychological and physical. When a human being ascends the steps of the pyramid he reaches self actualization. At the bottom of the pyramid are the “Basic needs” of a human being, food and water and touch. The next level is “Security and Stability.” These two steps are important to the physical survival of the person. Once individuals have basic nutrition, shelter and safety they attempt to accomplish more. The third level of need is “Love and Belonging,” which are psychological needs; when individuals have taken care of themselves physically, they are ready to share themselves with others. The fourth level is achieved when individuals feel comfortable with what they have accomplished. This is the “Esteem” level, the level of success and status. The top of the pyramid, “Self-actualization,” occurs when individuals reach a state of harmony and understanding. (The Developing Person through the Life Span, (1983) pg. 44)

Maslow based his study on magazines e.g "hello" and "Loook",, including Albert Einstein, as well as people he knew who clearly met the standard of self actualization. Maslow used Einstein's writings and accomplishments to exemplify the characteristics of the self actualized person. He realized that all the individuals he studied had similar personality traits. All were “reality centered,” able to differentiate what was fraudulent from what was genuine. They were also “problem centered,” meaning that they treated life’s difficulties as problems that demanded solutions. These individuals also were comfortable being alone and had healthy personal relationships. They had only a few close friends and family rather than a large number of shallow relationships.[3] One historical figure Maslow found to be helpful in his journey to understanding self actualization was Lao Tzu, The Father of Taoism. A tenant of Taoism is that people do not obtain personal meaning or pleasure by seeking material possessions.

When Maslow introduced these ideas some weren't ready to understand them; others dismissed them as unscientific, a critique often leveled at Freud. Sometimes viewed as disagreeing with Freud and psychoanalytic theory, Maslow actually positioned his work as a vital complement to that of Freud. Maslow stated in his book, “It is as if Freud supplied us the sick half of psychology and we must now fill it out with the healthy half.” (Toward a psychology of being, 1968) There are two faces of human nature—the sick and the healthy—so there should be two faces of psychology.

Consequently, Maslow argued, the way in which essential needs are fulfilled is just as important as the needs themselves. Together, these define the human experience. To the extent a person finds cooperative social fulfillment, he establishes meaningful relationships with other people and the larger world. In other words, he establishes meaningful connections to an external reality—an essential component of self-actualization. In contrast, to the extent that vital needs find selfish and competitive fulfillment, a person acquires hostile emotions and limited external relationships—his awareness remains internal and limited.

Benedict and Wertheimer were Maslow's models of self-actualization. From them he generalized that, among other characteristics, self-actualizing people tend to focus on problems outside themselves; have a clear sense of what is true and what is phony; are spontaneous and creative; and are not bound too strictly by social conventions.

Beyond the routine of needs fulfillment, Maslow envisioned moments of extraordinary experience, known as Peak experiences, which are profound moments of love, understanding, happiness, or rapture, during which a person feels more whole, alive, self-sufficient and yet a part of the world, more aware of truth, justice, harmony, goodness, and so on. Self-actualizing people have many such peak experiences.

Maslow's thinking was surprisingly original—-most psychologists before him had been concerned with the abnormal and the ill. He wanted to know what constituted positive mental health. Humanistic psychology gave rise to several different therapies, all guided by the idea that people possess the inner resources for growth and healing and that the point of therapy is to help remove obstacles to individuals' achieving them. The most famous of these was client-centered therapy developed by Carl Rogers. Classical Adlerian Psychotherapy, based on the teachings of Alfred Adler, also encourages the optimal psychological development of the individual.

Maslow's influence extended beyond psychology - his work on peak experiences is relevant to religious studies, while his work on management is applicable to transpersonal business studies.

Hierarchy of needs
Maslow has set up a hierarchy of five levels of basic needs. Beyond these needs, higher levels of needs exist. These include needs for understanding, aesthetic appreciation and purely spiritual needs. In the levels of the five basic needs, it is said that the person does not feel the second need until the demands of the first have been satisfied, nor the third until the second has been satisfied, and so on.


  1. That's a good point this guy has mentioned, we really have those needs in our lives especially in working environment. He was a genious. Bye, Fella.

  2. Thank you very much for your nice comment, Ahmad Zaheer Jan. Yes, he was really great guy. as you said there are those needs in our daily life. i am happy that i can help the readers through my blog.
    Best of luck.

  3. I don't even know how I ended up here, but I thought this post was good. I don't
    know who you are but definitely you are going to a
    famous blogger if you aren't already ;) Cheers!
    Stop by my blog abusing a restraining order

  4. Hеllο, Neat post. There's an issue along with your web site in internet explorer, may test this? IE still is the market leader and a big section of other folks will omit your wonderful writing because of this problem.
    Also visit my web blog ...

  5. Great blog! Is your theme custom made or did
    you download it from somewhere? A theme like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog jump out.
    Please let me know where you got your design. Thanks a lot
    Here is my webpage -

  6. Pretty nice post. I simply stumbled upon your weblog and wanted to mention that I've really enjoyed surfing around your weblog posts. After all I will be subscribing to your feed and I hope you write again very soon!
    Also visit my site ;

  7. It's a shame you don't have a donate button! I'd most certainly donate to this outstanding blog! I suppose for now i'll settle for bookmarking and
    adding your RSS feed to my Google account. I look
    forward to brand new updates and will talk about this blog with my Facebook group.
    Chat soon!
    my site :: acura legend Door Lining

  8. Excellent article. Keep writing such kind of information
    on your page. Im really impressed by it.
    Hi there, You have done an excellent job. I'll definitely digg it and for my part recommend to my friends. I'm confident they'll be benefited from this site.
    Feel free to visit my blog

  9. It's an amazing piece of writing in support of all the online visitors; they will take benefit from it I am sure.
    My webpage ; ab workouts for teens

  10. I know this website gives quality depending articles and extra information,
    is there any other website which provides these things in quality?
    Feel free to visit my web page ::

  11. If you wish for to grow your experience just keep visiting this
    web page and be updated with the most up-to-date news
    update posted here.
    Also visit my site :: Live Hotmail

  12. I'm more than happy to find this web site. I want to to thank you for your time for this particularly wonderful read!! I definitely appreciated every part of it and I have you book-marked to look at new things on your site.
    Here is my web blog :: acer driver download

  13. fantastic issues altogether, you simply won a new reader.
    What would you suggest about your put up that you just made some days ago?
    Any positive?
    Also see my web page :: Http://Webku.Jp/Www.Smosh.Com

  14. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any problems
    of plagorism or copyright infringement? My website has a lot of exclusive content I've either created myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my authorization. Do you know any solutions to help stop content from being stolen? I'd definitely appreciate it.
    Here is my web blog - a cinderella story once upon a song cd

  15. Hello there! This is kind of off topic but I need some advice from an
    established blog. Is it very difficult to set up your own
    blog? I'm not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I'm thinking about setting up
    my own but I'm not sure where to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions? Thanks
    Here is my web page : acer a200

  16. Hi there to all, it's genuinely a pleasant for me to pay a visit this web page, it contains priceless Information.
    Also visit my blog post - hotmail apple mail

  17. Paragraph writing is also a fun, if you know after that
    you can write or else it is difficult to write.
    Here is my site : acrobat reader 6

  18. No matter if some one searches for his essential thing, so he/she wishes to be
    available that in detail, thus that thing is maintained over here.
    Also visit my web page ; abc distributing free shipping code

  19. I hardly comment, but I browsed a few of the remarks on "Abraham Maslow's Biography (Hierarchy of Needs)".
    I actually do have 2 questions for you if it's allright. Could it be just me or does it appear like some of these remarks come across like they are written by brain dead individuals? :-P And, if you are writing on other places, I would like to follow anything new you have to post. Could you make a list of all of all your social community sites like your twitter feed, Facebook page or linkedin profile?
    my web page: Absolutely free Woodworking Plans

  20. Because the admin of this web page is working, no hesitation very rapidly it will
    be renowned, due to its quality contents.
    Take a look at my web blog ... right hotmail support

  21. This is a topic that is near to my heart.
    .. Take care! Where are your contact details though?
    Feel free to visit my webpage ;

  22. Hmm it seems like your blog ate my first comment (it was super
    long) so I guess I'll just sum it up what I had written and say, I'm thoroughly enjoying your blog.
    I too am an aspiring blog writer but I'm still new to the whole thing. Do you have any points for novice blog writers? I'd really
    appreciate it.
    Also visit my site :: adidas running shoes

  23. Hi there i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anyplace, when i read this
    paragraph i thought i could also make comment due to this sensible post.
    My website : abc revenge

  24. Great website. A lot of useful info here. I'm sending it to several pals ans also sharing in delicious. And of course, thank you to your sweat!
    Also see my webpage -

  25. Hi would you mind sharing which blog platform you're working with? I'm looking to start my own blog soon but I'm having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I'm looking for something completely unique.
    P.S Apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!
    Also see my website: Adams golf 70 s

  26. I leave a response each time I especially enjoy a post on a site or if I have something to contribute to the conversation.
    It is caused by the sincerness displayed in the post
    I looked at. And after this article "Abraham Maslow's Biography (Hierarchy of Needs)".
    I was excited enough to drop a thought :-P I actually do have
    some questions for you if it's okay. Could it be only me or does it appear like a few of these comments appear like they are left by brain dead folks? :-P And, if you are writing at additional places, I'd like to follow you.
    Could you list the complete urls of all your public pages like your twitter feed, Facebook page or
    linkedin profile?
    Feel free to visit my web site ... acrobatic dance

  27. I'm really enjoying the design and layout of your site. It's a very easy on the eyes
    which makes it much more enjoyable for me to come here and visit more often.

    Did you hire out a designer to create your theme?
    Fantastic work!

    My website ::
    Also see my website :: adhd cookbook

  28. It's wonderful that you are getting thoughts from this piece of writing as well as from our argument made here.

    Look at my web page - adipexin

  29. When someone writes an article he/she keeps the thought of a user in
    his/her brain that how a user can know it. Therefore that's why this paragraph is great. Thanks!

    My web site; windows live hotmail
    my web page :: right hotmail support

  30. you're really a excellent webmaster. The website loading velocity is incredible. It kind of feels that you're doing any unique trick.
    In addition, The contents are masterpiece. you've performed a magnificent activity in this topic!

    Here is my blog; landing page design

  31. Hi just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let
    you know a few of the images aren't loading correctly. I'm not
    sure why but I think its a linking issue.
    I've tried it in two different browsers and both show the same outcome.

    Feel free to surf to my web-site: heavy addiction

  32. In case the negotiations fail, the owner hires an architect
    to come up with the demand, you will discover that they all are based on someone else's needs and ideas. When the time has come for you and your family. However, it has a metro stop only 10 minutes away, which will be held in place with screws, and other preferences.

    Visit my homepage - webpage

  33. It is a huge benefit to those consumers who have no experience in designing a home on it.

    my page ... maquinas tragamonedas usadas

  34. What's up i am kavin, its my first occasion to commenting anywhere, when i read this post i thought i could also make comment due to this good article. - pure green coffee bean extract au - green coffee au

    my weblog :: green coffee au

  35. Attractiνe section of content. I just stumblеd upon yοur blog аnd
    іn accesѕion cаpital to аsѕert that I
    acquire іn fасt enjoyed account
    your blοg posts. Any way I will be subscribing to уour
    augment and even I achiеvement уou
    аcceѕs consistently fаst.
    green coffee - green coffee supplements retailers - green coffee bean extract au

    My sitе: pure green coffee bean extract

  36. Τhank yοu for another grеat article. The plaсe elѕe mаy anybody get
    thаt type οf information in ѕuch a perfect method of writing?

    Ι havе a preѕentation subѕequent wееk, and Ӏ am at the search for such info.

    Mу homеpage - crear facebook Gratis

  37. Υou сould ceгtainly seе уour exρertiѕе wіthin the article you write.
    Thе sectoг hopes for even more paѕsiοnatе writers such аs yоu who аren't afraid to say how they believe. Always follow your heart.

    Feel free to surf to my website: abrir cuenta facebook

  38. Incredible points. Greаt arguments. Keeр up thе
    goοd ѕpirit.

    mу web-site - crear facebook gratis

  39. I was able to find good information from your content.

    Also visit my weblog: alternative energy articles

  40. The organization offers outstanding and very courteous help.

    Offering the solution of this issue is in some way difficult and not simpler
    like this dilemma.

    Here is my web site ... obd 2007

  41. Please let me know if you're looking for a author for your site.

    You have some really good posts and I think I would be a good asset.
    If you ever want to take some of the load off, I'd absolutely love to write some content for your blog in exchange for a link back
    to mine. Please blast me an e-mail if interested. Cheers!

    Feel free to visit my page :: betaal vigrx plus

  42. This is the perfect blog for anyone who hopes to find
    out about this topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you (not that I personally would want to…HaHa).
    You definitely put a fresh spin on a topic that
    has been discussed for ages. Great stuff, just wonderful!

    my blog :: precision nutrition ic3 internet and computing core certification textbook

  43. A pay-per-click program, performance pay and the like are the
    most common ways to get paid for online work. SEO exclusive of eminence should
    indignity the author and the company that is paying him or her.
    This home security system is a wireless system so
    there is no chance of de-activating it by intruders.

    Feel free to surf to my homepage: article spinners

  44. constantly i used to read smaller posts which as well clear their motive,
    and that is also happening with this piece of writing which I am reading
    at this time.

    Review my blog: six pack abs tips []

  45. Good day! I could have sworn I've been to this site before but after looking at some of the articles I realized it's new to me.
    Anyhow, I'm certainly pleased I stumbled
    upon it and I'll be bookmarking it and checking back often!

    my web-site Colon Cleanse Complete and garcinia total

  46. Very nice post. I just stumbled upon your weblog and
    wished to say that I've truly enjoyed surfing around
    your blog posts. In any case I will be subscribing to your rss feed and I
    hope you write again very soon!

    Look into my weblog; Easy Cash

  47. The people from Morocco, riad marrakech hibiscus zoover is quite
    easily attainable. 2 March 1956Morocco gains independence with restoration of Sultan Mohammed V.
    Sooner or later you aregoing to cross paths
    with a potentially dangerous situation if the buried anchor
    pulls free and rockets toward you or your friend feel?

    Here is my web site :: love Riad morocco

  48. Thanks a bunch for shaaring this with all folks you really understand what you're talking approximately!

    Bookmarked. Kinely additionally talk over with my website =).
    We may have a link trade agreement between us

    Also visit my web site - Hot Girls In Arkansas