ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer):
Similar as Maslow’s Theory
Classifies Needs into three broader classes
1. Existence Needs: (Physiological and Safety Needs)
2. Related Needs: (Social Needs)
3. Growth Needs: (Esteem & Actualization Needs)
People may be motivated by needs on several levels at the same time
Satisfaction Progression Principle:
Satisfaction of one level of need encourages concern with the next level.
Frustration Regression Principle:
when we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy higher level need, we may cease to be concerned about that need and may focus on a lower level needs
Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory:
Herzberg believes that there are two types of factors:
1. Dissatisfiers or Maintenance Factors: basic need necessary for our existence
2. Satisfiers or Motivating Factors: factors which can motivate us to do something more
1. Maintenance Factors: (Extrinsic)
Factors such as pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies and other benefits.
2. Motivating Factors: (Intrinsic)
Factors such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth.
Herzberg concludes that Maintenance factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied but only Motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.
Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory:
Law of Effect: Behaviors having pleasant or positive consequences are more likely to be repeated and behavior having unpleasant or negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.
This phenomenon is called as Reinforcement
Types of Reinforcement:
1. Positive Reinforcement: Techniques aimed at increasing a desired behavior by providing pleasant or rewarding consequences.
2. Negative Reinforcement: Techniques aimed at increasing a desired behavior or decreasing an undesired behavior that involves providing unpleasant consequences
Individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and by praise for their performance
Punishment for poor performance produces negative results
The Equity Theory:
This theory argues that we prefer a situation of balance, or equity.
Input: Employees contribution to the organization
Outcome: Rewards employee receive from the organization.
Outcome/Input Ratio: Comparison between rewards and efforts.