Monday, March 1, 2010

Other 4 Theories

ERG Theory (Clayton Alderfer):
 Similar as Maslow’s Theory
 Classifies Needs into three broader classes
1. Existence Needs: (Physiological and Safety Needs)
2. Related Needs: (Social Needs)
3. Growth Needs: (Esteem & Actualization Needs)
 People may be motivated by needs on several levels at the same time

Satisfaction Progression Principle:
 Satisfaction of one level of need encourages concern with the next level.
Frustration Regression Principle:
 when we are continually frustrated in our attempts to satisfy higher level need, we may cease to be concerned about that need and may focus on a lower level needs

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory:
Herzberg believes that there are two types of factors:
1. Dissatisfiers or Maintenance Factors: basic need necessary for our existence
2. Satisfiers or Motivating Factors: factors which can motivate us to do something more

1. Maintenance Factors: (Extrinsic)
Factors such as pay, working conditions, supervisors, company policies and other benefits.
2. Motivating Factors: (Intrinsic)
Factors such as achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth.
 Herzberg concludes that Maintenance factors are necessary to keep workers from feeling dissatisfied but only Motivators can lead workers to feel satisfied and motivated.

Skinner’s Reinforcement Theory:
 Law of Effect: Behaviors having pleasant or positive consequences are more likely to be repeated and behavior having unpleasant or negative consequences are less likely to be repeated.
 This phenomenon is called as Reinforcement

Types of Reinforcement:
1. Positive Reinforcement: Techniques aimed at increasing a desired behavior by providing pleasant or rewarding consequences.
2. Negative Reinforcement: Techniques aimed at increasing a desired behavior or decreasing an undesired behavior that involves providing unpleasant consequences

 Individuals can be motivated by proper design of their work environment and by praise for their performance
 Punishment for poor performance produces negative results

The Equity Theory:
 This theory argues that we prefer a situation of balance, or equity.
 Input: Employees contribution to the organization
 Outcome: Rewards employee receive from the organization.
 Outcome/Input Ratio: Comparison between rewards and efforts.

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