Monday, March 1, 2010

The Motivation Theories

Theory X and Theory Y
Maslow’ Hierarchy of Needs
ERG Theory
Two Factors Theory
Reinforcement Theory
The Equity Theory

McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y:
 Provide an insight into the nature of people in relation to their work and about their work behaviors
 These theories are based on the managers’ assumptions about the people they are managing
 There is nothing “good” or “bad” about these theories

Theory X vs. Theory Y:
 Average human beings have an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if they can
 People must be controlled, directed and threatened to make them work
 People prefer to be directed, wish to avoid responsibilities, have relatively little ambition, and want security above all
 Work activities are as natural as rest or play
 People will work willingly for the achievement of objectives to which they are committed
 Commitment level is related to the rewards expected
 People will not only accept responsibilities, but also seek it
 The two theories lead to two different approaches towards managing people
 Theory X is pessimistic, static, and rigid. Control is primarily external i.e. imposed by the supervisor
 Theory Y is optimistic, dynamic, flexible with an emphasis on self-direction and matching individuals needs with the organizational demands

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