Friday, January 15, 2010


Before coming to management introduction, we have to learn and know about the following issues and terms
SystemA system is one which has interrelated parts and functions as a whole
Types of systemsIn general, system is classified into open and close system
Close systemClose system is closed in relation to their external environment. Relation is totally closed, no interaction with media
Open systemOpen system has relationship and interaction with its external environment. Whatever is negative in close system is positive here
System frameworkIt means how an organization works by beginning with inputs and ending with impact
Input: the initial items we need to run a project are called inputs
Process: bringing inputs in processing. Starting phase of a project is called process
Output: is the result
Outcome: further checking of output is called outcome
Impact: after outcome, there is impact
We have two types of impact; direct and indirect impact
For example: building a university has direct impact on students and indirect impact on the people
Two or more persons engaged in a systematic effort to produce goods or services
Three common characteristics of an organization (it means without these three characteristics we can not form an organization) are as follows
PeopleOrganizations are made up of people. Making a goal into reality entirely depends on people’s decisions and activities in the organization. Without people you can not form an organization or achieve goals
PurposeEvery organization has different purposes, which is typically expressed in terms of goal or set of goals
Structure: (Organizational structure/chart)
All organizations develop a systematic structure that defines and limits the behavior of its members/employees
Definition of behaviorEvery structure must show that who is responsible for what
Limitation of behaviorEvery structure must show that who has the authority to do what

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