Controlling is a three-step process of measuring, evaluating, and correcting.
Measuring: determining through formal and informal reports the degree to which progress toward objectives is being made.
Evaluating: determining cause of and possible ways to act on significant deviations from planned performance.
Correcting: is taking necessary action to achieve or exceed the objectives.
Directing is the implementing and carrying out of those approved plans that are necessary to achieve or exceed objectives.
Directing involves such steps:
Staffing: seeing that a qualified person is selected for each position.
Training: teaching individuals and groups how to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
Supervising: giving others day-to-day instruction, guidance, and discipline as required so that they can fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
Delegating: assigning work, responsibility, and authority so others can make maximum utilization of their abilities.
Motivating: encouraging others to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
Counseling: holding private discussion with another about how he might do better work, solve a personal problem, or realize his ambitions.
Coordinating: seeing that activities are carried out in relation to their importance and with a minimum of conflict.
Project managers must understand human behavior in order to motivate people toward successful accomplishment of project objectives.
Douglas McGregor recommends that most workers can be categorized according to two theories.
Theory X assumes that:
The average worker is lazy and requires supervision
The average worker dislikes work and avoids work whenever possible
The supervisor must threaten punishment and exercise careful supervision
The average worker avoids increased responsibility and seeks to be directed.
The manager who accepts Theory X normally exercises authoritarian-type of control over workers and allows little participation during decision making. Theory X employees generally favor lack of responsibility, especially in decision making.
Theory Y assumes that:
Employees are willing to get the job done without constant supervision.
The average worker wants to be active and finds the physical and mental effort on the job satisfying.
Greatest results come from willing participation, which will tend to produce self-direction toward goals without coercion and control.
The average worker seeks opportunity for personal improvement and self-respect.
The manager who accepts Theory Y normally recommends participation and a management-employee relationship.
The guidelines for proper motivation are:
Adopt a positive attitude
Do not criticize management
Do not make promises that cannot be kept
Circulate customer reports
Give each person the attention he requires
Giving assignments that provide challenges
Clearly defining performance expectations
Giving proper criticism as well as credit
Giving honest appraisals
Providing a good working atmosphere
Developing a team attitude
Providing a proper direction (even if Theory Y)