Saturday, April 3, 2010

Management Functions

 Controlling is a three-step process of measuring, evaluating, and correcting.
 Measuring: determining through formal and informal reports the degree to which progress toward objectives is being made.
 Evaluating: determining cause of and possible ways to act on significant deviations from planned performance.
 Correcting: is taking necessary action to achieve or exceed the objectives.

 Directing is the implementing and carrying out of those approved plans that are necessary to achieve or exceed objectives.
 Directing involves such steps:
 Staffing: seeing that a qualified person is selected for each position.
 Training: teaching individuals and groups how to fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
 Supervising: giving others day-to-day instruction, guidance, and discipline as required so that they can fulfill their duties and responsibilities.
 Delegating: assigning work, responsibility, and authority so others can make maximum utilization of their abilities.
 Motivating: encouraging others to perform by fulfilling or appealing to their needs.
 Counseling: holding private discussion with another about how he might do better work, solve a personal problem, or realize his ambitions.
 Coordinating: seeing that activities are carried out in relation to their importance and with a minimum of conflict.

 Project managers must understand human behavior in order to motivate people toward successful accomplishment of project objectives.
 Douglas McGregor recommends that most workers can be categorized according to two theories.
 Theory X
 Theory Y

 Theory X assumes that:
 The average worker is lazy and requires supervision
 The average worker dislikes work and avoids work whenever possible
 The supervisor must threaten punishment and exercise careful supervision
 The average worker avoids increased responsibility and seeks to be directed.
 The manager who accepts Theory X normally exercises authoritarian-type of control over workers and allows little participation during decision making. Theory X employees generally favor lack of responsibility, especially in decision making.

 Theory Y assumes that:
 Employees are willing to get the job done without constant supervision.
 The average worker wants to be active and finds the physical and mental effort on the job satisfying.
 Greatest results come from willing participation, which will tend to produce self-direction toward goals without coercion and control.
 The average worker seeks opportunity for personal improvement and self-respect.
 The manager who accepts Theory Y normally recommends participation and a management-employee relationship.

The guidelines for proper motivation are:
 Adopt a positive attitude
 Do not criticize management
 Do not make promises that cannot be kept
 Circulate customer reports
 Give each person the attention he requires
 Giving assignments that provide challenges
 Clearly defining performance expectations
 Giving proper criticism as well as credit
 Giving honest appraisals
 Providing a good working atmosphere
 Developing a team attitude
 Providing a proper direction (even if Theory Y)

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